REGION: East Asia and the Pacific

In “Open Data and the Fight Against Corruption in Indonesia,” Transparency International and the World Wide Web Foundation assess Indonesia’s performance in meeting commitments stated in the G20 Anti-Corruption Open Data Principles (G20 Principles). The following summary outlines the report’s analysis of Indonesia’s performance within each individual principle. Following the ratification of the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC), corruption prevention and eradication have become an important focus of the government of Indonesia. Indonesia has established various commissions and two National Strategies for Corruption Prevention to lessen corruption. The G20 Principles remain a large part of Indonesia’s focus on anti-corruption, as open data has emerged as a global tool for promoting transparency, accountability, and deterring corruption within governments.

Principle 1: Open Data by Default

The government has attempted to implement an “open data by default” policy, one which encourages preemptive disclosure of government data. A legal basis exists for enforcing the proactive publishing of government data, in Article 9 of the Law on Disclosure of Public Information, and a national and several city-based and provincial open data portals exist. However, exceptions to the “open data by default” principle remain open to interpretation, and a lack of regulation leads to varying degrees of disclosure, impeding open data by default. In addition, the lack of universal online access in Indonesia limits accessibility of open data.

Principle 2: Timely and Comprehensive Data

Timely and comprehensive data calls for updated and detailed datasets. Currently, government datasets suffer from a lack of availability, timeliness, and quality. Only three of ten key global anti-corruption datasets, as outlined by the G20 Principles, are available online. Of these three datasets, only two are frequently updated, and only one provides granular data. There also exist a lack of standardization of data management practices and a lack of feedback channels on such datasets.

Principle 3: Accessible and Usable Data

Accessibility of open data remains limited. Though a centralized, national data portal exists, only one anti-corruption dataset is available. Certain datasets are not machine-readable. Downloading datasets remains free, and registration is not required to access most datasets, but a lack of licensing information makes it unclear under what conditions government data may be reused. Such problems reflect a lack of engagement by the government in promoting open data.

Principle 4: Comparable and Interoperable Data

“Comparable” and “interoperable” refer to datasets that can work with and be compared to other datasets. These traits allow for the detection of patterns and anomalies between datasets, exposing corrupt practices. Though Indonesia has adopted certain global data and transparency standards, there exist few formatting standards for published data or data gathering methodology, hindering comparability and interoperability. Also, little accompanying documentation, such as background information, exists for government datasets.

Principle 5: Data for Improved Governance and Citizen Engagement

Government datasets lack methods for citizens to provide feedback concerning perceived data needs. There remains a lack of citizen engagement, as no data training exists for civil servants and the only regular public consultation on open data is with civil society organizations.

Principle 6: Data for Inclusive Development and Innovation

Efforts to develop open data in Indonesia have included the sharing of anti-corruption expertise and experience with other governments and international organizations. In this capacity, Indonesia actively contributes to G20 Anti-Corruption working groups. Certain innovative tools, such as mobile applications, have been created to utilize government data and obtain feedback, although these tools do not specifically address anti-corruption.

NOTE: This summary is produced by the Rule of Law Collaborative, not by the original author(s).

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